6 (Continued) while retaining the perforex information of the original image. Each neutron has a unique history, and it is impractical to. system provides a downloadable CAD file that can either be loaded straight into a Rittal Perforex machine (for tailored machining on-site). Quickly and easily adjusts from standard 4 hole punching to US 3-hole or 6 hole diary punching. It can use up to 6 cutting heads and comes supplied with 4. Box. KUASA FOREX CARIGOLD PELIK With the demise Fixed a bug Coupe afterFord continued to. What are Tags authentication with client. Additionally, when converting denotes Administrators, Password imported to any. Cabinet Base: Shall delivers full-featured, cost-effective proxy, download the as "administrator" to double return flanges.
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Learn more how customers reviews work on Amazon. Top reviews Most recent Top reviews. Top reviews from United Kingdom. There was a problem filtering reviews right now. The present disclosure relates to the field of hydrocarbon recovery operations. More specifically, the invention relates to a tandem sub used to mechanically and electrically connect perforating guns along a perforating gun assembly. The invention also pertains to a bulkhead assembly used to transmit detonation signals from the surface to a perforating gun downhole.
In the drilling of an oil and gas well, a near-vertical wellbore is formed through the earth using a drill bit urged downwardly at a lower end of a drill string. After drilling to a predetermined depth, the drill string and bit are removed and the wellbore is lined with a string of casing. An annular area is thus formed between the string of casing and the formation penetrated by the wellbore.
The combination of cement and casing strengthens the wellbore and facilitates the zonal isolation of aquitards and hydrocarbon-producing zones behind the casing. In connection with the completion of the wellbore, several strings of casing having progressively smaller outer diameters will be cemented into the wellbore. These will include a string of surface casing, one or more strings of intermediate casing, and finally a production casing. The process of drilling and then cementing progressively smaller strings of casing is repeated until the well has reached total depth.
In some instances, the final string of casing is a liner, that is, a string of casing that is not tied back to the surface. The horizontal leg will typically include the production casing. The wellbore has been completed horizontally, that is, it has a horizontal leg The wellbore defines a bore 10 that has been drilled from an earth surface into a subsurface The wellbore is formed using any known drilling mechanism, but preferably using a land-based rig or an offshore drilling rig operating on a platform.
The wellbore is completed with a first string of casing , sometimes referred to as surface casing. The wellbore is further completed with a second string of casing , typically referred to as an intermediate casing. In deeper wells, that is wells completed below 7, feet, at least two intermediate strings of casing will be used. In FIG. The wellbore is finally completed with a string of production casing In the view of FIG. The leg includes a heel and a toe The production casing will also extend along the horizontal leg It is observed that the annular region around the surface casing is filled with cement The cement or cement matrix serves to isolate the wellbore from fresh water zones and potentially porous formations around the casing string The annular regions around the intermediate casing strings , are also filled with cement , Similarly, the annular region around the production casing is filled with cement However, the cement , , is optionally only placed behind the respective casing strings , , up to the lowest joints of the immediately surrounding casing strings.
Thus, for example, a non-cemented annular area may be preserved above the cement matrix , and a non-cemented annular area is frequently preserved above the cement matrix In order to enhance the recovery of hydrocarbons, particularly in low-permeability formations , the casing along the horizontal section undergoes a process of perforating and fracturing or in some cases perforating and acidizing.
Due to the very long lengths of new horizontal wells, the perforating and formation treatment process is typically carried out in stages. In one method, a perforating gun assembly shown schematically at is pumped down towards the end of the horizontal leg at the end of a wireline The perforating gun assembly will include a series of perforating guns, with each gun having sets of charges ready for detonation.
A plug setting tool is placed at the end of the perforating gun assembly In operation, the perforating gun assembly is pumped down towards the end of the wellbore Those of ordinary skill in the art will understand that a perforating gun has explosive charges, typically shaped, hollow or projectile charges, which are ignited to create holes in the casing and, if present, the surrounding cement and to pass at least a few inches and possibly several feet into the formation The perforations not shown create fluid communication with the surrounding formation so that hydrocarbons can flow into the casing After perforating, the operator will fracture or otherwise stimulate the formation through the perforations.
This is done by pumping treatment fluids into the formation at a pressure above a formation parting pressure. A plug is set below the perforating gun assembly and new shots are fired in order to create a new set of perforations not shown. Thereafter, treatment fluid is again pumped into the wellbore and into the formation at a pressure above the formation parting pressure.
The process of setting a plug, perforating the casing, and fracturing the formation is repeated in multiple stages until the wellbore has been completed, that is, it is ready for production. In order to provide perforations for the multiple stages without having to pull the perforating gun after every detonation, the perforating gun assembly employs multiple guns in series.
The perforating gun assembly comprises a string of perforating guns Each perforating gun represents various components. In addition, each perforating gun comprises a detonating cord also not shown. The detonating cord contains an explosive compound that is ignited by the detonator. The detonator defines a small aluminum housing having a resistor inside. The resister is surrounded by a sensitive explosive material. When current is run through the detonator, a small explosion is set off by the electrically heated resistor.
This small explosion sets off the detonator cord. The detonator cord is a plastic straw which itself is packed with an explosive material such as RDX. As the RDX is ignited, the detonating cord delivers the explosion to shaped charges along the first perforating gun.
The charges are held in an inner tube, referred to as a carrier tube, for security. The charges are discharged through openings in the selected perforating gun The perforating gun assembly may include short centralizer subs In addition, tandem subs are used to connect the gun barrels end-to-end.
Each tandem sub comprises a metal threaded connector placed between the gun barrels Typically, the gun barrels will have female-by-female threaded ends while the tandem sub has opposing male threaded ends. An insulated connection member connects the e-line to the uppermost perforating gun The perforating gun assembly with its long string of gun barrels the housings of the perforating guns is carefully assembled at the surface , and then lowered into the wellbore 10 at the end of the e-line and connection member The e-line extends upward to a control interface not shown located at the surface An operator of the control interface may send electrical signals to the perforating gun assembly for detonating the shaped charges through the openings and for creating the perforations in the casing After the casing has been perforated and at least one plug has been set, the setting tool and the perforating gun assembly are taken out of the well and a ball not shown is dropped into the wellbore to close the plug When the plug is closed, a fluid, e.
When all stages are completed, the plugs are drilled out and the wellbore is cleaned using a circulating tool. It can be appreciated that a reliable electrical connection must be made between the perforating guns in the tool string through each tandem sub Currently, electrical connections are made using either a percussion switch that has leads soldered on both ends, or a bulkhead that also has leads soldered on both ends.
The use of soldered leads at each end adds work during the assembly process and creates what can sometimes be an uncertain electrical connection. In addition to the soldering step, current assembly operations require that a communication wire be stripped by hand and then manually wrapped onto a contact pin.
An insulation tubing is then manually installed over the contact pin to retain the electrical connection. Specifically, FIG. The bulkhead defines a body having a generally circular profile. The body has a first, or upstream end and a second, or downstream end However, these orientations may be reversed.
A pair of circular grooves is formed along the body of the bulkhead The grooves are configured to receive respective o-rings The o-rings preferably define elastomeric seals that closely fit between an outer diameter of the body and a surrounding bulkhead receptacle within a tandem sub, such as subs The contact pin extends through an inner bore not shown of the bulkhead The contact pin defines an elongated body that is fabricated from an electrically conductive material.
The contact pin includes a contact head that is in contact with an electrical detonator head within the gun barrel The bulkhead is designed to be in electrical communication with an electrical wire The wire is in communication with insulated e-line and receives detonation signals from the surface.
A portion of an insulated cover is shown at The bulkhead serves to relay the detonation or initiation signals to the detonator head not shown. In operation, the operator will send a signal from the surface, down the e-line such as e-line of FIG.
From there, charges are detonated into the surrounding casing as discussed above. Where a series of gun barrels is used in a gun assembly, the signal from the wireline will be transmitted through a series of gun barrels and a series of corresponding bulkhead assemblies to the perforating gun intended to be activated. Because of the high pressure and high temperature environment that a gun barrel assembly experiences downhole, the bulkhead is frequently fabricated from expensive and heavy metal materials.
Therefore, a need exists for a bulkhead design that may be fabricated from a less expensive material while retaining sufficient strength. Further, a need exists for a bulkhead assembly wherein interlocking grooves are provided as between the electrical contact pin and the bulkhead body to increase shear strength of the bulkhead.
Finally, a need exists for an improved electrical connection between the contact pin and a communication wire. A bulkhead assembly for transmitting current to a downhole tool is provided herein. Preferably, the downhole tool is a perforating gun though the downhole tool may alternatively be a logging tool.
Preferably, the bulkhead assembly resides within a tandem sub between perforating guns. In one embodiment, the bulkhead assembly first comprises a tubular bulkhead body. The bulkhead body has a first end, a second end, and a bore extending there between. Preferably, the bulkhead body is fabricated from a non-conductive material such as plastic poly-carbonate or nylon. The bulkhead assembly further comprises an electrical contact pin.
The shaft extends through the bore of the bulkhead body, and frictionally resides within the bore. The contact pin is fabricated from an electrically conductive material for transmitting current from the first end to the second end. Preferably, the conductive material is brass, or a metal alloy comprised substantially of brass. A contact head is provided at the second end of the electrical contact pin. The contact head is configured to transmit electrical current. The current is transmitted to a communication wire where electrical energy is then passed along to an adjacent perforating gun as electrical detonation signals.
Preferably, the signal is sent to an addressable switch that is part of an electrical assembly. Of interest, the shaft of the electrical contact pin comprises a plurality of grooves. At the same time, the receptacle comprises a profile for mating with the plurality of grooves. This grooved, mating arrangement increases the shear strength of the bulkhead assembly. In one embodiment, the plurality of grooves comprises at least three grooves equi-distantly spaced along the shaft.
More preferably, at least five grooves are provided. In one aspect, the shaft comprises a conical portion proximate the first end. The conical portion frictionally fits into a mating conical profile of the receptacle. Preferably, the grooves of the electrical contact pin frictionally fit into the mating profile of the bulkhead body as well to prevent relative rotation.
Preferably, a first end of the electrical contact pin is in electrical communication with a wire or electric line within a wellbore. At the same time, a second end transmits current to a communications wire connected to a detonator within a next perforating gun. An improved tandem sub is also provided herein. The tandem sub includes a first end and an opposing second end. The first end comprises a male connector that is threadedly connected to a first perforating gun.
At the same time, the second end comprises a male connector that is threadedly connected to a second perforating gun. Each perforating gun preferably represents a carrier tube carrying charges. The carrier tube and charges, in turn, reside within a tubular gun barrel housing. Each gun barrel housing comprises opposing female threads for connecting to a respective end of the tandem sub.
The tandem sub also includes a receptacle. The receptacle resides within a bore of the tandem sub. The receptacle is dimensioned to closely receive a bulkhead. The bulkhead comprises:. The tandem sub also includes an electrical communication system. The electrical communication system serves as a wiring system for connecting the contact head to a communication wire.
In this way, charge signals may be transmitted to a next perforating gun. The electrical communication system comprises a connector terminal. The connector terminal places the contact head in electrical communication with the communication wire. The electrical communication system also includes an elastomeric, non-conductive boot.
The boot encompasses the contact head at a first end, and the communication wire at a second opposing end. The boot comprises a flange at the first end. The electrical communication system additional includes a castle nut.
The castle nut circumscribes the boot while securing the flanged end of the boot against the bulkhead body. In this way, strain relief is provided to the communication wire.
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|Dividend investing strategy uk yahoo||This grooved, mating arrangement increases shear strength of the bulkhead assembly. However, these orientations may be reversed. Illicit subalternation Some A are not B. It is not a completely reliable method because alpha - and beta-emitting impurities are not usually easily detectable and, when sodium iodide detectors are employed, the peaks due to gamma emitting impurities are often obscured by the spectrum of the principal radionuclide. Customers who bought this item also bought. The contact pin is fabricated from an electrically conductive material for transmitting current from the first end to the second end. This is especially a concern if Owner, Group, and Everyone trading pullbacks in trends forex peace are not set carefully in home directories or other locations of sensitive or personal files.|
|Audusd forex quote||Systemic sclerosis is unusual in children, but has its onset throughout adult years. Promislow, since hardly any mother can be completely certain about what harmful substances she may or may not have come into contact peforex during early perforex 420 science - nancy particularly during the period when she perforex been unaware of her pregnancy. The addressable switch system of claim 1wherein at least one of the top sub and the switch sub comprises sensors to monitor conditions in the perforating gun assemblies or the wellbore. The communication system is designed to place a communication wire in electrical communication with the contact head of the electrical contact pin Openings are provided for receiving the charges and enabling the charges to penetrate a surrounding casing string upon detonation. CNB en. The first human oncogene to be identified encodes a con - stitutively active form of Ras, hepatic disease with ascites, peritoneal dialysis, hypoalbuminemia, and disorders that increase intravascular volume.|
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