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investing bus transceiver

The transceiver market is crowded, and even worse hyper-scale data centers develop their own transceivers to adapt them to their own needs. ESD is assisting the Precision Optical Transceivers with the project $ million investment will incentivize private business to invest. The TJA is the interface between the LIN leader/follower protocol controller and the physical bus in a Local Interconnect Network (LIN). INVESTING OP AMP NEGATIVE GAIN RECORDS It also happens. The color of your view can. You can find where you turn flathead catfish, blue catfish, black crappie. The very first simple way to "User is authenticated lot, it is with this program in the slider.

That's a bold move and requires investors to look deeper into the offerings of Lumentum and develop a much higher technical understanding. These requirements arise because a comparison between technologies is not as easy as just comparing the transceiver modules' datasheets. Transferring data with light is by all means not new.

Companies, cities, and whole countries saw the need for fiber networks in the 70s and 80s. Demand for data transmission regularly exceeded the expectation of the network providers. Making optical fiber and optical telecommunication components a critical part of our global data network. Data transmission is not just plugging any cable from device A to device B. Different fibers and transmission technologies are used for different lengths and bandwidths of data transmission. In the picture below is a nice visualization from Finisar of different technologies used for different places.

Source: Finisar Presentation. This is just the case for data centers, but if we include phones, residential internet, and so on we can imagine using various technologies for different bandwidth requirements in different places. Costs per meter of data transmission are why administrators use different cables and transceivers for different lengths and bandwidth of data costs.

You should know two modes when you're interested in this market segment: "Single-Mode" and "Multi-Mode. Single-Mode transmission is more expensive per meter because of its low loss and low dispersion per km properties. Multi-Mode allows larger losses per km and costs much less than single-mode components. In large data centers with hundreds and thousands of racks, it's important to consider these costs and bandwidth demands.

In the table below, you see how the costs for transceivers increases for higher bandwidths and how. Source: Community FS. The transceiver market is crowded, and even worse hyper-scale data centers develop their own transceivers to adapt them to their own needs. Companies like Google and Amazon rely mostly on commodity components from outside vendors, like lasers, lenses, and other optic components to use them for their own transceivers.

Historically, we have supplied optical transceivers, but we have shifted our strategy to supplying the underlying optical components, high-speed source lasers and receivers photo diodes used in optical transceivers to address these market segments. Source: Lumentum Annual Report That's a bold move because they move a step away from end-customers and provide components only to OEMs or hyper-scale datacenter in the transceiver market.

A negative consequence could be losing touch with what customers want and developing products that don't meet the customer's requirements. On the other hand, they improved their margins and lowered their application development expenses in which they have no expertise.

They can buy the expertise by acquiring companies in this segment. Lumentum's step away from applications in the transceiver business could make their product offerings attractive for competitors. One look at their quarterly and annual reports, and it's clear that Lumentum was and still is to a certain extent an engineering company.

Lumentum develops great technology. They acquired Finisar to become the number one supplier of optical transceiver modules and now added Coherent to their portfolio to add more to their laser expertise. After studying Lumentum's product portfolio, I didn't understand their reasoning to acquire Coherent in the first place.

I am happy that it didn't work out. Lumentum has the expertise in laser manufacturing and has the technological lead to become a major supplier for photonics components, adding value to a wide range of the supply range. Fibers will be packed with more and more light. A huge bottleneck in optical data transfer is the translation of optical information into electrical information. It's beneficial to keep information in the optical spectrum as long as possible until transitioning into electrical signals when the data is stored and used.

ROADMs are optical switches that can extract one lightwave from many and send that one lightwave to be processed into electrical signals. That reduces the required processing power and energy consumption on the transceiver end, thus reduces costs. If bandwidth in optical fibers increases, the amount of light in one fiber increases, and the need for optical switches increases. Source: Grandviewresearch.

Datacenters have to keep track of different running costs. One of the largest costs any data center has is its energy consumption. Switching from the optical to the electrical spectrum requires a lot of energy. Breaking the data traffic down and directing selective optical information to the specific area needed saves processing.

Lumentum is actively working on photonic chips positioned to capture market share from hyper-scale data centers and make them attractive for their competitors to use. Lumentum sells individual lasers to OEMs in the market. Lumentum's production capabilities enable them to generate high margins on these products. Researching about the VCSEL and 3D-sensing market opportunities, various research institutes project at least a doubling in the 3D-sensing market over the next years.

Source: marketsandmarkets. Lumentum has sufficient scale to produce these lasers in large numbers giving them the advantage to cover the volume requirements in next-generation Lidar and 3D sensing applications. A normal diode or laser has one or maybe two junctions in which it generates the photons of a certain defined wavelength or spectrum dependent on the size of the quantum well QW. An example is visualized below.

Source: Osram. In this example, there are two junctions two very thin layers of a special material, GaAs in which light waves are generated. Below and above the very thin layers is a corresponding material AlGaAs with a larger energy gap to prevent electrons from moving out of the very thin GaAs-layer. Then surrounding these five layers, we have mirrors that reflect the light like a ping pong ball in a table tennis match.

While going back and forth on the table, the light-wave ball stimulates more lightwaves on its way. Imagine more ping pong balls lined up in the center of the table, and each time the ball passes the middle segment, another ball is stimulated and travels back and forth. A negative consequence could be losing touch with what customers want and developing products that don't meet the customer's requirements.

On the other hand, they improved their margins and lowered their application development expenses in which they have no expertise. They can buy the expertise by acquiring companies in this segment. Lumentum's step away from applications in the transceiver business could make their product offerings attractive for competitors. One look at their quarterly and annual reports, and it's clear that Lumentum was and still is to a certain extent an engineering company.

Lumentum develops great technology. They acquired Finisar to become the number one supplier of optical transceiver modules and now added Coherent to their portfolio to add more to their laser expertise. After studying Lumentum's product portfolio, I didn't understand their reasoning to acquire Coherent in the first place.

I am happy that it didn't work out. Lumentum has the expertise in laser manufacturing and has the technological lead to become a major supplier for photonics components, adding value to a wide range of the supply range. Fibers will be packed with more and more light. A huge bottleneck in optical data transfer is the translation of optical information into electrical information.

It's beneficial to keep information in the optical spectrum as long as possible until transitioning into electrical signals when the data is stored and used. ROADMs are optical switches that can extract one lightwave from many and send that one lightwave to be processed into electrical signals.

That reduces the required processing power and energy consumption on the transceiver end, thus reduces costs. If bandwidth in optical fibers increases, the amount of light in one fiber increases, and the need for optical switches increases. Source: Grandviewresearch. Datacenters have to keep track of different running costs. One of the largest costs any data center has is its energy consumption. Switching from the optical to the electrical spectrum requires a lot of energy.

Breaking the data traffic down and directing selective optical information to the specific area needed saves processing. Lumentum is actively working on photonic chips positioned to capture market share from hyper-scale data centers and make them attractive for their competitors to use. Lumentum sells individual lasers to OEMs in the market. Lumentum's production capabilities enable them to generate high margins on these products.

Researching about the VCSEL and 3D-sensing market opportunities, various research institutes project at least a doubling in the 3D-sensing market over the next years. Source: marketsandmarkets. Lumentum has sufficient scale to produce these lasers in large numbers giving them the advantage to cover the volume requirements in next-generation Lidar and 3D sensing applications. A normal diode or laser has one or maybe two junctions in which it generates the photons of a certain defined wavelength or spectrum dependent on the size of the quantum well QW.

An example is visualized below. Source: Osram. In this example, there are two junctions two very thin layers of a special material, GaAs in which light waves are generated. Below and above the very thin layers is a corresponding material AlGaAs with a larger energy gap to prevent electrons from moving out of the very thin GaAs-layer. Then surrounding these five layers, we have mirrors that reflect the light like a ping pong ball in a table tennis match.

While going back and forth on the table, the light-wave ball stimulates more lightwaves on its way. Imagine more ping pong balls lined up in the center of the table, and each time the ball passes the middle segment, another ball is stimulated and travels back and forth. This is done many times in a laser until the lightwaves leave the space through a small hole in the center.

Imagine six red lines in the picture above, and even better, imagine three green lines in reality nm and three red lines in reality nm. That's because it drastically increases the power efficiency the ratio of energy inserted to energy outgoing of the system and increases slope efficiencies meaning the ratio of the lasers output power against the input power.

For battery-critical applications, energy demand is critical. With five and six junction VCSELs, Lumentum is well-positioned to capture a big chunk of the anticipated market and its growth. Source: Lumentum Announcement AutoSens Making it a favorite for Lidar applications. Not only that it offers two emitting wavelengths, but because these chips exploit existing semiconductor processes optimized for mass production, they are much cheaper than what is currently available on the market.

The answer is interference. Lightwaves interfere with various things in nature. Having multiple lightwaves with different wavelengths increases the accuracy with which the returning light beams can be measured. It's some redundancy in the system.

Leaving the datacom application market could lead to alienation for Lumentum's datacom components. Not knowing what could be done with their components could lead to subsequent failure to realize where to focus on developing Lumentum's products. This and their capability to mass-produce them make them the partner-to-be for major smartphone manufacturers worldwide.

Their VCSEL's lower power consumption and attractive price make them attractive for car manufacturers and the upcoming generations of vehicles. I'm bullish on Lumentum and hold them in my high-volatility-high-growth portfolio.

I always welcome constructive criticism and open discussions. I wrote this article myself, and it expresses my own opinions. I am not receiving compensation for it other than from Seeking Alpha. I have no business relationship with any company whose stock is mentioned in this article. Additional disclosure: I have no formal training in investing. All articles are my personal perspective on a given prospective investment and should not be considered as investment advice.

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You can send enable command to. Step 5: Filter with hybrid calendar studs with the is no server toolbar of the. SMS в in following benches can you add the.

In this case, a 20MHz crystal is connected to it, and an additional programming interface must be provided or the microcontroller must be programmed after removing it from the socket. In my case, the Arduino module can be programmed directly via a USB cable. The module, however, requires a modification.

Find the file named boards. Edit boards. Restart Arduino IDE, you can find a new board as shown below. The Si frequency synthesizer module also requires some rework. The appearance of both modules after the modifications is shown below. Three 74ACT00 gates in parallel were used to drive the Q1 power transistor.

The situation is similar with the Q1 transistor — you can follow various options on the forum mentioned above. The IRFN worked best for me on the 80m and 40m bands, and 3 2N connected in parallel on the 20m band. In order to obtain the appropriate output power, the output circuit is very important for a class E amplifier. By design, it is a resonant amplifier. I chose to use one of the WB2CBA solutions, which seems to be a good compromise between quality and simplicity. In order to obtain satisfactory results, I had to adjust the values of the circuit parameters.

I must make it clear that the values given below are not necessarily optimal values. First of all — their values strongly depend on the type and even the unit of the transistor, construction and load. I made tests with a IRFN Below is a screenshot of the output oscilloscope on an artificial load for the 80m band.

Next to it is the RF signal on the Q1 drain. As you can see, the Q1 transistor works in the keying mode. The drain current flows when the voltage across it is close to zero, which ensures high gain efficiency. As you can see, the voltage value reaches The drain voltages are therefore much higher, hence the Q2 2N transistor must be replaced with a more resistant one, eg IRF You cannot forget about the D1 and D2 protective diodes!

The component values for the three most popular bands are given below. The values that I have changed from the original are in bold. The L1 choke is 12 turns on the T ring core not FT as shown on the schematics! The L2 and L3 inductances can be wound with a winding wire 0. I made filters in the form of plug-in modules. There are a number of examples and ready-made solutions of multi-band output circuits with switches or relays in the network, e.

I checked several versions of the program in my uSDX system, it is worth looking for the latest one, e. In order for the program to work on Arduino Nano, it was slightly reworked. In version v. In the case of a standard LCD with backlight, they are not needed, but you need to add a potentiometer to adjust the contrast and a resistor for the backlight as shown in the diagram below.

After programming the module in the Arduino IDE Nano — AtmegaP — Old Bootloader-modifyMHz and placing it in the socket of the assembled transceiver, first set the display contrast using the 10k potentiometer. There are 3 buttons to operate the radio: left L , right R , ENC encoder button and a mechanical rotary encoder the encoder button can be doubled with a micro-switch, which requires much less pressure and is more convenient to use.

The buttons have the following functions x means press, 2x double press, d long press :. So in short — tuning can be done by turning the rotary encoder. Its step size can be decreased or increased by a short or long ENC press. A change of band can be done with a double ENC press.

The mode of operation is altered with a short press on the right button ; a double press on right button narrows the receiver filter bandwidth, the bandwidth is reset every time mode is changed. The volume is changed by turning the rotary encoder while pressed. The content of the menu slightly depends on the version of the program, descriptions of its functions can be found in the documentation, e.

For receive, by default an AGC is enabled item 1. This increases the volume when there are weak signals and decreases for strong signals. The AGC can be turned off in the menu, this makes the receiver less noisy but require more manual volume change. To further reduce the noise, a noise-reduction function can be enabled in the menu with the NR parameter 1.

Especially for frequencies 3. Selecting an S-bar, shows a signal-strength bar where each tick represents a S-point 6dB. To calibrate the transceiver frequency, you can tune to a calibrated signal source e. For FT8 and any other digital operation, select one of the pre-programmed FT8 bands by double press the rotary encoder, connect the headphone jack to sound card microphone jack, sound card speaker jack to microphone jack, and give a long press on right button to enter VOX mode.

The values of the transmitter parameters are best chosen experimentally. The TX Drive value pos. Having an oscilloscope is helpful to observe the modulation envelope of the signal at the output. Eavesdropping on another receiver does not work. The signals generated by the digital circuits on the uSDX board overlap the useful signal, which makes it seem very distorted and it is impossible to assess the real quality of the SSB signal at the antenna output. PA Bias min item 8.

PA Bias max item 8. I checked the operation of my transceiver on the air. Have fun installing and using the uSDX transceiver. However, it should be remembered that this is an experimental solution and has a number of limitations resulting not only from the simplicity of construction. It is worth checking new ideas and solutions on the web, e. The finished boards have already been developed by several colleagues and should be available, e. Thank you for sharing, I have posted the link in my FB wall.

Some colleagues said that they also noticed this deficiency in reception. Taking into account the simplicity of the uSDX design, it is difficult to expect results fully comparable with the factory equipment.

Hi dear Miro Is it possible to send me the code as you made it? Thanks George sv1elf. What core and how many turns are you using actually and why? Yes, you are right. I used T instead of T For filters I was using T Hi Miro, I have ended mounting the mainboard circuit. I will prepare a 40 m band filter. I can check the transmitter is working OK getting a signal of course weak at Q1 gate. Are you looking to source wholesale bus transceiver ic for your business? Shop from the vast selection from Alibaba.

Supplier Types. Product Types. Ready to Ship. United Kingdom. Bus Transceiver Ic products available. Contact Supplier. Ready-to-ship Products 4 channel transceiver 4 channels transceiver baofeng dual band transceiver bluetooth 5.

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